A Battery Management System (BMS) is defined as an electronic system that operates a rechargeable battery by monitoring its state. It monitors the environment by secondary data obtained through a range of detection systems.
BMS has two primary functions. The two functions are to keep the battery pack operating safely and reliably. This technology takes several inputs such as voltage, temperature, and electricity. The data is procured through sensors, the physical and chemical changes in the environment serve as stimuli. The BMS system makes use of various algorithms to generate an accurate estimation of the outputs. The primary outputs are SOC (state of charge), SOH (state of health), and Safe operating envelope.
In a lithium-ion battery, overcharging can form unstable conditions inside the battery such as boost pressure and cause thermal runaway. The application of lithium-ion batteries has been rising extensively within the automotive sector.
The technology penetration rate for BMS into the Lithium-Ion Battery market can also be moderated via this market intelligence platform. Most lithium-ion battery packs contain a BMS to monitor their state of charge and cut off the power when the limit is reached. Thus it is necessary to monitor battery state and ensure the safety of operation since lithium-ion batteries are used only in specified conditions.
Applications of this technology:
According to the market database, BMS is used in single (centralized) or multi-cell lithium-ion battery applications. The centralized BMS has some advantages, i.e. the system is more compressed. The design for modern potable applications is moving towards compact systems that can offer a variety of tasks.
Second, the centralized BMS solution is financially beneficial since the system integrates several technical platforms, i.e. all the batteries are to be connected to the BMS directly. Thus the centralized BMS facility requires several ports to connect with all the battery packages. However, a network of wires is used to enable this connectivity. This in turn serves as a design limitation for the BMS market owing to the space constraint associated with the current design. The negative impact of this challenge on the BMS industry vertical can also be assessed through Global Market Database. Some of the key segments of the value chain for this sector include railways, Oil & Gas, Telecom, Power utilities, Defence, Backup power solutions, Solar power, and Automotive.
The functionality of the product:
The BMS fulfills a variety of functions depending on the type and the size of the battery.
According to the market database, the primary objective of BMS is to keep the battery within safe operational standards in terms of voltage, current, and temperature during both, the charge and the discharge. This in turn would increase the product life associated with the battery. Moreover, it serves as a measure that safeguards the overall functionality of the system and the end-user.
The battery behavior is analyzed by BMS continuously or periodically while transforming the monitored parameters into battery state data. The user can choose and execute a given decision depending on the obtained battery state data.
The Battery sensing and monitoring system consist of three sensors: (i) current sensor, (ii) voltage sensor, and (iii) temperature sensor. The three sensor signals are read by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), processed by a programmable STM32 microcontroller, and provided at the output via the CAN interface. Thus the BMS market increases the demand for sensors across its value chain. The overall market dynamics associated with the sensors and the BMS sector can be understood using market research tools.
According to the market database, countries such as France and Italy are major battery manufacturers. The automobile industry of Europe is the leanest production process with an advanced industry. The use of water and energy is optimized in Europe. The demand for BMS is caused due to the presence of manufacturing facilities of major automotive manufacturers in Germany.
The factors that are playing a major role in the growth of the market are the application of BMS in smartphones, renewable energy systems, and electric vehicles. The lack of standards may restrain overall market growth in the years to come. Switzerland-based companies are largely involved in offering energy storage solutions, mainly dealing with lithium-ion cell technology aiming for cleaner energy. These companies offer specialty battery systems, stationary solutions, e-transport solutions and battery, and energy management systems.
The companies based in Switzerland offer in-house battery management systems by partnering with a hardware company.
According to the market database, the products offered by the Swiss companies are either high voltage or low voltage battery management systems. These BMS are manufactured as per the industry standards. All the BMS delivered are either single board or master-slave architecture. These typically provide safety against conditions such as exceeding the voltage, current, or temperature level, or short circuit issues that can affect the performance of the battery as well as its life.
Future of BMS:
Considering the threat of polluting emissions and energy dependence, the electrification of road transport has become a global focus. The main production parameters of electric vehicles (EVs) are size, cost, charging time, energy consumption, and efficiency. Batteries are a significant component in EVs, assessing the impact of the charging-discharging pattern on battery usage, performance, and safety is important. The primary tasks of BMS include extending End-Of-Life (EOL). This can be done by minimizing aging, as well as adept fault detection, alarm, thermal management, information storage, and networking between the modules.
According to the market database, software and hardware are the elements that could be explored in the Battery Management System (BMS) in the forecast period. The hardware sector comprises the CAN bus, battery control unit, communication channel, and power management IC. Distributed, centralized, and modular components could be explored in the BMS vertical in the forecast period.